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Hermann Klaatsch, 1863-1916


ヘルマン・クラッチュ博士(Hermann Klaatsch、1863年3月10日 - 1916年1月5日)は、ドイツの医師、解剖学者、身体人類学者、進化論者で、ハイデルベルク大学(1890年から)とブレスラウ大学(ヴロツワフ)の教 授(1916年まで)であった。

Dr. Hermann Klaatsch (10 March 1863 – 5 January 1916) was a German physician, anatomist, physical anthropologist, evolutionist, and professor at the University of Heidelberg (from 1890) and at the University of Breslau (Wrocław) until 1916.[1]

Klaatsch was a Professor of Anatomy and studied evolutionary theory, being mentioned in some fingerprint books for his early studies on friction skin development. He researched the volar pads associated with the epidermal patterns, grouping the volar pads of humans and primates together. Subsequent to Arthur Kollmann, Klaatsch also gave names to the various volar pads in 1888.[2]

Klaatsch was one of the most important researchers in the field of physical anthropology from the late 1890s to the time of his death. He made many discoveries and advocated separating anthropology from religion.[1]
ヘルマン・クラッチュ博士(Hermann Klaatsch、1863年3月10日 - 1916年1月5日)は、ドイツの医師、解剖学者、身体人類学者、進化論者で、ハイデルベルク大学(1890年から)とブレスラウ大学(ヴロツワフ)の教 授(1916年まで)[1]であった。

クラッチは解剖学の教授であり、進化論を研究し、摩擦皮膚の発達に関する初期の研究でいくつかの指紋の本で言及されている。彼は、表皮のパターンに関連す るヴォラールパッドを研究し、ヒトと霊長類のヴォラールパッドをグループ分けしていた。アーサー・コルマンに続いて、クラッチュも1888年に様々な ヴォーラーパッドに名前をつけた[2]。

Life and work
Klaatsch was born in Berlin. His father was a physician, and Hermann showed an interest in collecting specimens and in the natural sciences while a boy. He graduated from Royal Wilhelms-Gymnasium in 1881 and went to the University of Heidelberg to study medicine, and biology. He later went on to study at the University of Berlin and at the biological station of Villefranche.

Klaatsch began working at the Rudolf Virchow laboratory and also at the Augusta hospital. In 1885, he became scientific assistant, there, at the anatomical institute, under Waldeyer, and received a degree of doctor of medicine (M.D.).

In 1888, Klaatsch received a personal invitation to the University of Heidelberg from the old college friend that first interested him in anatomy. In 1890 Klaatsch began teaching there, and in 1895 he was promoted to professor extraordinarius.

Between 1904 and 1907, Klaatsch traveled into Australia and Java to study the native peoples. The culture and the bone structures of the Aborigines of Australia fascinated Klaatsch, and he later published papers on his findings.




Time in Australia

In Queensland, his principal contact was Walter Roth; after spending some time examining Roth's private collections in Brisbane, in June 1904 Klaatsch travelled north to Newellton, near Cairns, where he stayed as the guest of F.E. Clotten of the Lancelot Tin Mining Company. Near here he was shown Aboriginal camp sites in rockshelters, first saw Aboriginal rock art, and collected stone tools.[3] Later he spent time on Melville Island.

Klaatsch has a notorious connection with North Queensland for having returned to the Upper Russell River at the end of 1904 where he acquired the mummified body of the 'King of Bellenden Ker', which he sent to Berlin.[4] Herman Klaatsch was renowned for digging up indigenous Aboriginal graves for his own collection. Historical evidence shows Indigneous peoples opposed the removal of human remains and that there would be dire consequences for doing so. He dug up a grave at night time and reported that his assistant had later been killed because of it, and was also chased away from the Normanton area by people calling him ‘devil devil’ because of his grave robbing activities.[5]

ブリスベンでウォルター・ロス(Walter Roth, 1861-1933)の個人コレクションを調査した後、1904年6月にはケアンズ近郊のニューウェルトンまで北上し、ランスロット錫鉱業会社のF・E・ クロッテンの客として滞在する。この付近でアボリジニのロックシェルターでのキャンプを見せられ、アボリジニのロックアートを初めて目にし、石器を収集し た[3]。 その後、メルビル島にも滞在した。

クラッチュは、1904年末にラッセル川上流に戻り、「ベレンデン・カーの王」のミイラ化した遺体を入手し、ベルリンに送ったことで北クイーンズランドと 悪名高いつながりがある[4]。ヘルマン・クラッチュは、先住民アボリジニの墓を掘り起こして自分のコレクションとしていたことで有名である。歴史的な証 拠によると、先住民は人骨の持ち出しに反対しており、そうすれば悲惨な結果になることが分かっていた。彼は夜間に墓を掘り起こし、後にそのせいで助手が殺 されたと報告している。また、墓泥棒の活動のために、ノルマントン地区から「デビル・デビル」と呼ばれて追い払われたこともあった[5]。
Return to Breslau

When he returned from his journey, Klaatsch began teaching anatomy and anthropology at the University of Breslau. In 1912 he developed a course in topographic anatomy. During his time at Breslau, Oetteking described Klaatsch's other accomplishments: "Besides his professorship at the University, Klatsch held several honorary offices, academic and governmental, and his government honored him by bestowing upon him several orders."

Klaatsch was an avid member of the yearly congress of anthropologists and anatomists, and he spoke at nearly every meeting.

Klaatsch also wrote many published papers, all published in his native German. The most important papers he wrote compared similarities of the Aborigines and the neandertaloids bone structures. He also wrote about the skeletal remains in southern France in 1913.

Klaatsch's most important contribution was very controversial. According to Oetteking,[6] "Klaatsch was one of the first to advocate energetically a clear division of religion and science."[citation needed] Oetteking added, "It may be difficult for us… to realize that a conception of anthropology raising it to the level of an academic science dates back not even a generation (in 1916), and is due to spirits of Klaatsch's type."

Klaatsch changed the way anthropology was taught. His life revolved around anatomy and anthropology, and he never had a family. He made many important discoveries and changed the way people looked at anthropology.

A long-term professor of anatomy and physical anthropology, Hermann Klaatsch died unexpectedly in Eisenach in 1916. His major work was assembled posthumously by his colleagues.[7]

旅から戻ったクラッチュは、ブレスラウ大学で解剖学と人類学を教え始めた。1912年、彼は地形解剖学の講座を開設した。オエテキングは、ブレスラウでの クラッチの功績を次のように語っている。「大学での教授職のほかに、クラッチュは学術的、政府的な名誉職をいくつも務め、政府からはいくつかの勲章を授与 されて名誉を受けた"。



クラッチュの最も重要な貢献は、非常に議論を呼ぶものであった。オテキングによれば[6]、「クラッチュは宗教と科学の明確な区分けを精力的に提唱した最 初の一人」[citation needed] オテキングはさらに、「人類学を学術科学の水準にまで高めた概念は、(1916年の)1世代も前に遡らず、クラッチュのタイプの精神に起因するということ を...私たちは理解しがたいかもしれない」と述べている。


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Klaatsch. https://www.deepl.com/ja/translator
●Walter Roth, 1861-1933

Walter Edmund Roth (2 April 1861 – 5 April 1933) was a British colonial administrator, anthropologist and medical practitioner, who worked in Queensland, Australia and British Guiana between 1898 and 1928.

Roth and his brother, Henry Ling Roth, are the subject of a joint biography by Russell McDougall & Iain Davidson: The Roth Family, Anthropology, and Colonial Administration (2008).[1]
ウォルター・エドモンド・ロス(1861年4月2日 - 1933年4月5日)は、イギリスの植民地行政官、人類学者、開業医で、1898年から1928年までオーストラリアのクイーンズランド州とイギリス領ギアナで活動した。


Roth was appointed the first Northern Protector of Aboriginals in 1898 and was based in Cooktown, Queensland. From 1904 to 1906 he was Chief Protector and part of his duties was to record Aboriginal Australian cultures.

The first three of his Bulletins on North Queensland ethnography were published in 1901, numbers 4 to 8 appearing between 1902 and 1906. In 1905 he was appointed a Royal Commissioner to inquire into the condition of the Aboriginal people of Western Australia, and in 1906 he was made government medical officer, stipendiary magistrate. The remainder of Roth's bulletins on North Queensland ethnology, began to appear in the Records of the Australian Museum at Sydney in 1905; and numbers 9 to 18 will be found in volumes VI to VIII.


1901年には北クイーンズランドの民族誌に関する最初の3冊のBulletinsが発行され、1902年から1906年にかけて4冊目から8冊目が発行 された。1905年には西オーストラリアのアボリジニの状況を調査する王立委員に任命され、1906年には政府医務官(stipendiary magistrate)に任命された。北クイーンズランド州の民族学に関するロスの紀要の残りは、1905年からシドニーのオーストラリア博物館の記録に 掲載され始め、第9巻から第18巻に掲載されている。
British Guiana

In 1906 Roth was made protector of Indians in the Pomeroon district of British Guiana.

He was given charge of the Demerara River, Rupununi and Northwest districts in 1915.

In 1924 his valuable An Introductory Study of the Arts, Crafts, and Customs of the Guiana Indians was published at the government printing office at Washington, U.S.A., appended to the Thirty-eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Though called an introductory study this is an elaborate work of well over 300,000 words with hundreds of illustrations. Another volume, Additional Studies of the Arts, Crafts, and Customs of the Guiana Indians was published as Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 91 (1929).

Roth retired from the government service in 1928, and became curator of the Georgetown museum of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society, and government archivist.

Towards the end of his life he translated and edited Richard Schomburgh's Travels in British Guiana.[2]

The Walter Roth Museum of Anthropology in Georgetown, Guyana was later named in his honour.



1924年、彼の貴重な「ギアナインディアンの芸術、工芸、習慣の入門的研究」が、アメリカ民族学局の第38回年次報告に添付されて、アメリカ・ワシント ンの政府印刷局で出版された。入門書と称しているが、30万字を優に超え、数百の図版を含む精巧な作品である。もう一冊、Additional Studies of the Arts, Crafts, and Customs of the Guiana Indiansは、Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No.91(1929)として出版されている。


晩年はリチャード・ションバーグ(Richard Schomburgh)の『イギリス領ギアナ旅行記』の翻訳と編集を担当した[2]。

ガイアナのジョージタウンにあるウォルター・ロス人類学博物館(The Walter Roth Museum of Anthropology)は、後に彼の名誉を称えるために命名された。

A "vigorous Protector" in North Queensland, according to historian Barrie Reynolds, "Roth attracted "the hostility of the local European residents" for his advocacy on behalf of Indigenous Australians.[3]

It was, however, the reaction to his controversial anthropological research that would trigger Roth's departure from Queensland. In either 1900 or 1901, Roth paid an Aboriginal couple to demonstrate a sexual position of which he took photographs. In 1904 and 1905, speeches in the Queensland Parliament on this and other aspects of his work were said to form "a pile as high as the Eiffel Tower".[4]: 7–8  According to V. B. (Joe) Lesina MP: "Hansard teemed with speeches delivered against the administration of Dr Roth until they had a pile as high as the Eiffel Tower, and the Minister brushed everything aside as he would a fly from his aristocratic nose".[5] Roth attempted to defend his actions by stating that the photographs were taken for purely scientific purposes,[6] Social Scientist Helen Pringle (School of Politics and International Relations) writes of the episode that in her opinion: "Forcing, or persuading, Aborigines to perform sexual acts like performing bears for a white male audience fits squarely even within then current criteria of enslavement, a heinous crime that shocks the conscience of mankind then and now."[4]: 28  The controversy contributed to his resignation on the grounds of ill health and departure for British Guiana in 1906.

歴史家のバリー・レイノルズ(Barrie Reynolds)によると、クイーンズランド州北部の「精力的な保護官」であったロスは、オーストラリア先住民のための主張のために「地元のヨーロッパ系住民の敵意」を引き付けたという[3]。

しかし、ロスがクイーンズランドを離れるきっかけとなったのは、物議を醸した彼の人類学的研究に対する反応であった。1900年か1901年に、ロスはア ボリジニのカップルにお金を払って性的な体位を実演してもらい、その写真を撮影した。1904年と1905年、クイーンズランド州議会でこの件と彼の研究 の他の側面に関する演説が「エッフェル塔のように高い山」を形成したと言われている[4]: 7-8 V. B. (Joe) Lesina議員によると、「ハンサードはロス博士の政権に対する演説であふれ、エッフェル塔のように高い山になったが、大臣は貴族の鼻からハエを取るよ うにすべてを脇に払った」[5]と言われている. [5] ロスは、写真は純粋に科学的な目的のために撮影されたと述べて、自分の行動を弁護しようとした[6]。 社会科学者のヘレン・プリングル(政治・国際関係学部)は、彼女の意見として、このエピソードについて次のように書いている。「白人男性の観客のためにア ボリジニに熊を演じるような性的行為を強制したり、説得したりすることは、当時の奴隷化の基準にもぴったり当てはまり、当時も今も人類の良心を揺さぶる凶 悪犯罪である」[4]: 28 この論争が原因で彼は体調不良を理由に辞任し、1906年にイギリス領ギアナに出発することになった。
Roth, Walter E. (1897). Ethnological Studies Among the North-west-central Queensland Aborigines. Brisbane: E. Gregory, Government Printer.
Roth, Walter E. (1901). The structure of the Koko-Yimidir language. Brisbane: E. Gregory, Government Printer. hdl:1959.9/506875.







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